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Joseph Wareham was born in the United States, around the year 1840. His place of birth is thought to have been in the state of New Jersey, but was in reality the city of Philadelphia. Census records reveal he lived across the river from New Jersey; near Philadelphia. Although Joseph Wareham, on many official documents gave Philadelphia, as his place of birth, including when he enlisted in the US Navy on the 24 May 1861, there is a notable exception - the report of the Surgeon of the Fleet, G R B Horner, dated 15 September 1861. The Surgeon recorded the injuries of the wounded, which had taken part in the attack on the Confederate Pensacola Naval Yard, of which Joseph Wareham was one.  He questioned each one of the wounded in turn, recording their injuries and where they were born. Joseph was probably giving Philadelphia, as the nearest city to where he was born. It should be noted that the city of Philadelphia is built on one side of the river Delaware, which is in the State of Pennsylvania, but on the other of this river, across from the city is the State of New Jersey.

Joseph was to add to the confusion over his birthplace, when Roxsbury, written as Rockesbury, (now a suburb of Boston), Massachusetts was recorded as his birthplace, on two of his children birth certificates.  However Joseph may have misinterpreted the question and gave the place of his last residence in the USA.  And to further add to the confusion, on his death certificate [i]and his subsequent Obituary, Boston was recorded as his birthplace. Boston was probably Joseph’s homeport, a place he knew very well as adult and talked about often, and this may be why the family assumed that Boston was his birthplace. Joseph did not know the date of his birth, nor could he even give even an approximation, much to the frustration of the US Pension Office. The US Pension Office needed a birth date for his Pension, but finally they decided initially to use the 30 August (date of his marriage to Bridgit Brennan), but they later changed this date to the 24 May (date of his enlistment in the US Navy). 

Joseph consistently gave the year 1840 as the year of his birth on all official records, apart from his enlistment 24 May 1861, where his age was recorded as 23 (1838) and his death certificate, where his age was recorded as 90 (1830). He himself never knew for sure when or where he was born, as was seen in his Declaration for Pension statement dated May 11, 1912;

“I have no record whatsoever supplying evidence of the date of my birth.   I am not aware whether or not my birth is registered at Philadelphia or elsewhere and I have never seen any certificate of any such registration.   I do not recollect there being any family Bible at my home in Philadelphia containing any family record of my birth.   I verily believe that I was christened at some Church of England at Philadelphia aforesaid but I have never seen a certificate of my baptism nor am I aware whether or not any record now exists of such baptism.” 

The first name of his mother was Ellen; his father’s first name is unknown.  Joseph had two brothers and his four sisters:  James, Daniel, Ellen, Catherine, Maria and Janet. The last time that Joseph visited his Mother and sisters, they were residing in Philadelphia was in 1857 and his two-brothers James and Daniel had already left the family home.  Joseph gave his name on three of his children birth certificates as Joseph Stephen(s) Wareham. Joseph is the only one of the U.S. Wareham family known to have immigrated to New Zealand. He was later the earliest Wareham Ancestor, and the only one of the U.S. Wareham family, known to settle in the colony of New Zealand; believed to have arrived at Dunedin, N.Z. around November 1863

Joseph went to sea as a merchant marine at the age of 16 on the vessel the Minnesota, after the death of his father and his family was very poor. For eleven years, Joseph Wareham travelled back and forth across the Atlantic. It was said that he had served in the British Navy and that he also was said to have been a water boy on one of the British ships, during the Crimean War in 1854.  A water boy was part of the gun crew of front-loading gun. Between the firings, it was necessary to insert a pole with very wet squab on end into the barrel to clean out any residues of burning power. If this not done when new powder was added the burning residues could cause a premature explosion, which could kill gun crew. Although this is not certain, he was definitely in Calcutta, India around the time of the Indian Mutiny of 1857. 

Joseph Wareham, on his return to Boston, enlisted with the US Navy, during the American Civil War, as a seaman because of his prior experiences at sea on the 24 May 1861. The Boston Recruiting Office was under great pressure to process as many recruits as possible to fill waiting warships that were to enforce a Union naval blockade of the 3,500 miles of southern coastline from the Potomac River to the Rio Grande. The blockade was essential to prevent the Confederate States from exporting baled cotton and from importing of arms, munitions and medical supplies. Joseph Wareham’s enlistment details were written in short hand and he gave his place of birth as Philadelphia; his age of 23; no occupation; the colour of his eyes, blue; colour of hair, brown; complexion, fair; height, 5ft, 4 inches and no marks or scars noted. However records yielded two interesting facts that he did not have previous US Navy Service and that he “made his mark” instead of signing his name. Joseph Wareham probably learnt to write his name while on board the USS Colorado.

Joseph and others were taken to the receiving a massive old sailing vessel, the USS Ohio. It was obsolete for modern naval warfare and it had been turned into a receiving ship, a barracks and school for new recruits and usually held 300 to 400 awaiting posting orders. On his arrival, he changed into his new uniform and stowed his hammock and gear. It would have been usual to wait three weeks or more before his posting order arrived, but Joseph was only on the vessel for one week, before he was assigned to the “USS Colorado”; on the 1st June 1861 as part of the 674 sailors and marines on the U.S. frigate.  The USS Colorado was the latest naval ship of its day, launched on the 19th June 1856. The vessel had a 4,772 tons displacement and with dimensions of 268’6” length x 52’6” beam x 23’9” draft or depth of hull. The ship’s complement was one of 674. It was principally a sailing vessel. However her low pressure and powerful engines allowed the propeller-driven ship to move faster than steam war ships driven by paddle wheels.

On the 3rd June 1861 at the Boston Navy Yard, Capt. Hudson, Commander of the Yard came on board and put the ship in commission by the order of the Secretary of the Navy. On the 18th June, 9.45am. The Colorado was Commodore William Marvine's flagship in the establishment of the Mexican Gulf Blockade in 1861, under the command of Captain Theodorus Bailey from 1805 to 1877, and departed the city of Boston to join the Gulf Blockading Squadron off Pensacola, Florida in the Gulf of Mexico; assisting in starving out insurgent Confederates from Key West to the Rio Grande. She arrived at Key West, Florida on July 9, 1861, where she replenished her coal, water and other necessary supplies. After completing her replenishment of supplies at Key West, the USS Colorado headed for Fort Pickens Florida, arriving there on July 15, 1861.

Joseph Wareham was also part of an expedition of 100 sailors and marines sent to either capture or destroy the Confederate Schooner "Judah" at Pensacola Harbour in northern Florida on August 3, 1861. The Confederate private schooner ‘Judah’ was being fitted out in the harbor. Lieut. John H. Russell was in overall command of a force consisting of one hundred men, officers, sailors and marines from the US Colorado; which included Joseph Wareham, Lieut.’s Sproston as 1st Cutter, Blake as 2nd Cutter, and Midshipman Steece as 3rd Cutter.

The expedition set out with muffled oars from the US Colorado at Midnight of the 13 September 1861 and called first at the Union Fort Pickins on Santa Rosa Island, where shavings and turpentine were taken on board in case it became necessary to burn the Judah and to ensure that the commanding officer of Fort Pickins, Colonel Brown would provide fire cover should the Confederate Fort, Fort Barrancas, open fire on the returning launch and cutters. They were discovered by sentries, however, and the operation proved to be a failure; requiring a second attack to be organized. 

On the second try, Lieut. Russell with Lieut. Blake attacked the Confederate schooner Judah at 3.30am on the 14 September 1861. The Judah was found to be armed with a privot and four broadside guns. Unfortunately her crew was waiting for them and commenced firing volleys of musketry from the crosstrees of the schooner as the first launch and second cutter approached the CSS Judah. Boatswain Mate, Charles Lampiere and John Herring were instantly killed. But Engineer White was able to kill one of the Confederate snipers in the crosstrees of the schooner. Lieuts. Russell and Blake, both had narrow escapes with the flesh of each being grazed by one or more musket balls. The attacking party, with shots of musketry flashing around them stormed on board for a cutlass fight and hand to hand combat broke out across the decks with the 75-man crew of the CSS Judah. The attacking party forced the crew, who had made a brave resistance, from the CSS Judah and on to the dock where they were reinforced by Confederate forces aroused by the sounding of the alarm bell and the firing off of rockets. Meanwhile the CSS Judah had her guns spiked and was set on fire in several places, burning to the water’s edge. Later the fire set the CSS Judah free from her moorings and she drifted down opposite to the Confederate Fort Barrancas; where she eventually sank. The Confederates kept up a continued firing with volleys of musketry and Joseph Wareham received a gunshot wound through the left arm, into his shoulder. It was said by the family that Joseph dove from the burning Judah, and wounded and swan towards the launch and cutters as they were rowing away from the burning CSS Judah; but that is not substantiated by official reports. The whole force of the Confederate Navy Yard, estimated to be over one thousand strong, was then aroused and the boats rallied a short distance from the shore where they fired six canisters from the howitzers into the Navy Yard. As result, three of the enemy were said killed, but it was later said that the number was much larger.

Lieut. Sproston and Midshipman Steece had been assigned to search for and spike the 10” Columbiad gun. There had been no opposition to the landing. However, the crews of the two cutters had became separated in the darkness, and Midshipman Steece of the third cutter decided they would go to the aid of the attacking party on the schooner. Lieut. Sproston continued the search for the gun. After a considerable search, the columbriad was found, guarded by a solitary confederate guard, who immediately levelled his firearm at Lieut. Sproston, but was shot down by Gunner Boreton before he could obtain certain aim; both pieces exploding simultaneously. The columbriad was immediately spiked and they brought off its tompion as a trophy.

On the return of the expedition to the USS Colorado, Captain Bailey visited the wounded in their hammocks and made the following promotions: Henry Ward a seaman was promoted to Boatswain mate; Robert Clark a coxswain of the 2nd cutter was promoted to Master Mate and Joseph Wareham a seaman was promoted to coxswain of the 2nd cutter and second captain of the main top.

The Medical Journal of the USS Colorado recorded: “Joseph Wareham, act 24, born in New Jersey, shipped Boston May 24th 1861. Admitted Sep. 14th with gsw [gunshot wound] of left arm four inches below shoulder extending to back and base of scapula. Ball was easily felt and was extracted next day by excision. Wound continued to heal and patient was discharged Oct. 14th, cured.”

At 10.20 on the 15th September 1861, there was a call for all hands to divine service and the following letter from the Flag Officer was read;

“The Commander in Chief of the United States naval forces in the Gulf of Mexico is desirous of expressing in some public manner his appreciation of the conduct of the officers and men attached to his flagship who engaged in the attack on the Pensacola Navy Yard on the morning of the 14th instant. It is by similar deed of daring that the proud position of our Navy has been won, and a proof has now been given that there has been no degeneracy in the spirit of her sons since the days of Decatur, Morris, and Hull.

The Commander in Chief laments that such signal success should have demanded the death of three brave men and the sufferings of so many others. He desires to express his personal sympathy with the wounded and with the friends of the death, and his assurance that a grateful country will not forget any of those who have given such undoubted proof of their devotion to her interests and her flag.

Wm Mervine

Flag-Officer, Commanding Gulf Blockading Squadron”

When the report of the expedition was sent to Gideon Welles, the Secretary of the Navy, he wrote back a Letter of Commendation to the new Flag-Officer W. W. McKean, Commander of the Gulf Blockading Squadron;

NAVY DEPARTMENT, October 4, 1861

SIR: The Department received Flag-Officer Mervine’s report of the boat expedition dispatched by him from the “Colorado” on the night of the 13th  of September, under the command of Lieutenant John H. Russell, of the Navy, to destroy the rebel privateer “Judah”, moored at the wharf of the Pensacola navy yard, and to spike the guns in battery near by.

An expedition executed in the face of an enemy so much superior in numbers, with such brilliancy, gallantry, and success cannot pass without the special recognition and recommendation of the Department. To those who were engaged in it, not only the Department, but the whole country is indebted for one of the brightest pages that has adorned our naval record during the rebellion.

Indeed it may be placed, without disparagement, side by side with the fairest that adorn our early naval history.

The expedition will give renown, not only to those who were immediately concerned in it, but to the Navy itself. It will inspire others in the service to emulation; its recital hereafter will thrill the heart with admiration.

The Department will cherish the recollection of the exploit, and desires you to express to the officers, seamen, and marines who participated in it its highest admiration of their conduct.

The loss to the Service and to their relatives and friends of those who fell in the expedition is a painful feature of it, but the memory of those brave men should not be lost to the hearts of all true patriots, but be ever cherished therein.

I am respectfully, your obedient servant,

Gideon Wells

Flag-Officer W W McKean

Commanding Gulf Blockading Squadron

Joseph Wareham was then entitled to carry weapons, such as a cutlass and a firearm and would have worn the Petty Officer's badge, which was a five pointed star on its own, above the elbow on the left sleeve. From his Statutory Declaration 1913 for his US Pension, Joseph stated that one of the tattoos was a star on the back of the left hand above the first finger.  It was most probable that this tattoo was done in celebration of his new rank. The collars of his shirt had two stripes added, with two pointed stars in each corner and as a coxswain he was also entitled two crossed anchors. The cuffs of his shirt now had four stripes.

An expedition from the USS Colorado was sent out on 11 December 1861 to Pilot Town, where they succeeded in capturing a small schooner and two men. On the 28th January 1862, the USS Colorado which was on blockade duty at the South West Passage, encountered and assisted with the capture of the CSS John C. Calhoun, from Havana trying to break through the blockade to New Orleans.

The CSS Calhoun was a 509-ton steamer armed with one 18 pounder, two 12 and two 6 pounder guns: originally built in New York 1851 as the “Cuba”. On the 15th May 1861, the Confederate Government commissioned the “CSS Calhoun” as a privateer on the 15th May 1861 and during five months captured six Union ships and later served as the flagship for Commodore G.N. Hallins CSN, during his successful engagement between his fleet and five Union ships at the head of the passes into the Mississippi River on the 12th October 1861. After her capture by the USS Colorado, the CSS John C. Calhoun was renamed the USS Calhoun.

On the 23 January 1862, the US Colorado was situated off the South West pass, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, where a week later, she engaged four Confederate steamers.

Captain David G. Farragut had been placed in charged of a fleet of 43 Union vessels that was assembled on the 7th March 1862, off Ships Island, in order to capture the city of New Orleans; which was the Confederacy’s largest city and major cotton port. However the passes to the Mississippi River had been silted up, since the Federal blockade, and Captain Bailey could not get his ship, the USS Colorado through, even after he tried to lighten his ship by removing stores, ammunition ballast and guns. Because the USS Colorado was unable to enter the Mississippi River, the officers, sailors and marines missed out on playing a part in the capture of the city of New Orleans. Later, however, the Colorado became the flagship of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron and figured prominently in the assault and seizure of Fort Fisher in North Carolina. After that the USS Colorado returned to Boston, Massachusetts, arriving on June 21,

1862, and was decommissioned a week later

On 30 June 1862, Joseph Wareham was discharged at Portsmouth, New Hampshire and returned to Boston, Massachusetts. He then departed as second mate on the barque “Victoria” for Melbourne, Australia, where he stayed for 6 months; later leaving aboard the “Victoria?” for Dunedin, New Zealand, around November 1863.

There Joseph Wareham headed for the New Zealand goldfields, arriving at the gold rush town of Hokitika, on South Island in New Zealand around February of 1865 and resided on Beach Street; working as a carter. Joseph Wareham was married on the 30th August 1866 at the St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church in Hokitika, to 22-year-old Bridgit Brennan; by the Rev. Father J. McGirr, a pioneer Roman Catholic Missionary.  While Bridgit made her mark, Joseph Wareham was then able to sign his name; having learned to do so while aboard the USS Colorado. Bridgit was born around 1844, the daughter of Daniel Brennan and Ann Brennan of Coon East, County Kilkenny, Ireland. Joseph & Bridgit Wareham, after their marriage in Hokitika, on the 30 August 1866, joined the great stampede of gold miners to the newly founded town of Brighton, on the West Coast. The gold diggings began about a mile north of the town on a coastal range, which rose to 1000 feet. It was there on the Welshman Terrace near Brighton, on the West Coast, that gold was first discovered.

Joseph Wareham was a gold miner, however he initially worked at surf boating, loading and unloading of ships, as there was no wharf. All supplies for Brighton were seaborne and the vessels lay off shore while their cargoes were landed in boats. As the boats were often over loaded, it was a dangerous occupation. In the first year alone there were four vessels wreaked and lost.

Joseph and Bridgit had four sons and three girls. James Wareham was born 2 July 1867, Brighton; Joseph Wareham, born 11 October 1869, White Horse Terrace, Brighton; Anne Maria Wareham, born 13 October 1871, Charleston, Ellen Wareham, born 14 October 1873, Brighton; Daniel Wareham, born 21 November 1875, Brighton (this is the baptism birth date because Daniel’s birth was never registered at the time of his birth); William Wareham, born 20 November 1877, Brighton (baptism birth date 21 November 1877) and Catherine Wareham, born 21 November 1879, Brighton (baptism birth date 21 October 1879). David Anderson and his family are descended from William Joseph Wareham (1877-1957); and Evelyn Trudgian (1895-1979).

Joseph registered the births of their children, which for Joseph became a great inconvenience, particularly when the registration office was later to be move to Charleston. The Civil registration of New Zealand births, marriages and deaths was more like a continual census record, providing invaluable information for the development of the colony. But for the ordinary citizen, it didn’t serve any practical purpose; that was a time before pensions were paid and the birth certificate became important for establishing proof of age. 

Although Joseph did not attach much importance to the registration of his children births, he was most particular with the naming of his children. He included many of his family’s first names as well as including names from Bridgit’s family.

The conditions at that time were primitive and the Warehams first lived in a canvas tent. Goods that were imported were very expensive and many items were therefore adapted. Kerosene tins had a side cut open and were used for washing up and sugar bags were cut up and used for table covers and clothing; nothing that could be reused was thrown away.

Joseph’s occupation was that of a gold miner and was a precarious one. Bridgit helped by labouring over her vegetable garden, to provide food for the family. In the early days, Bridgit, though she was pregnant, would still be working vegetable garden right up to the time she had to give birth. She would then go home and have her baby, after she had cleaned and wrapped her new baby, she would return back to digging up potatoes or cabbages.

Around 1881 Joseph had the weekly contract to deliver mail by horse between Brighton and Charleston, a distance of 11 miles, and the journey on horseback took about three hours when the track was in fair condition.

There was good community spirit of the West Coast and the Warehams were reluctant to leave Brighton, but with the decline of gold by 1884, Brighton was fast declining. The town would eventually totally disappear, even its name Brighton was to later replace by Tiromona.

Joseph, Bridgit and their children settled in Dunedin around 1883, the most prosperous and modern city in the colony of New Zealand. Its prosperity was based on the gold discoveries of Otago and later enriched with the export of frozen meat to Britain, which began in 1887.

Joseph had a house for a time on Elm Row, which ran parallel to and connected with Rattray Street, where the St. Joseph’s Roman Catholic Cathedral is situated; on the steep hills of Dunedin.

Around 1885, that the Wareham family lived in a valley in Kaikorai; then in the township of Lorne, now a suburb of Dunedin. He later brought a piece of property for 60 pounds the 21st October 1891, on Church Street, which was later, renamed Nairn Street, at present day 5 Jellicoe Street. When Joseph and Bridgit moved to Wellington, the property was sold on the 31 May 1897 for 130 pounds.

Joseph was a carter, or carrier, and thought to have initially worked for his brother in law Edward McKewen. He may have also worked with his eldest son, James who was a butcher, who was said to have been selling meat door to door from a horse drawn cart.

From 1893 to 1896, Joseph Wareham was the licensee of the Harp of Erin hotel, today known as Branson's Hotel, at 91 St Andrew Avenue in Dunedin.  The hotel was opened by Francis Joseph McGrath in 1874 and was situated in prime location near the main street of Dunedin and the Octagon, the heart of the city. Joseph was said to have managed the hotel and is believed that Edward Dwyer, Bridgit’s nephew, helped his Uncle and Aunt into this hotel.

Edward Dwyer arrived from Ireland in 1883, owing 10 pounds for his fare. But Edward Dwyer, before his premature death from tuberculosis in 1899 was to amass a huge fortune of approx. 6,700 pounds and owned a number of hotels. 

Joseph Wareham as a hotelkeeper was now a person of some substance in the community, self-employed and an employer in his own right. It was usual for hotelkeeper to retain the lease of the hotel for three years and after which they would sell the goodwill that had been built up for profit and move onto another hotel.  Joseph had to be profitable, but at the same time stay within the strict licensing laws. If he lost his license, he would also loose his lease and of course his equity in the hotel.

After the Harp of Erin hotel Joseph became the licensee of the third “Barrett’s Hotel” circa 1897 to 1900. The management of the hotel was a family affair, with their son William as the Manager and their three unmarried daughters helping their mother on the domestic side.

The Barrett’s Hotel occupies a very special and unique place in the history of New Zealand. Dick Barrett, a whaler, who piloted the "Tory" into Wellington harbour, founded it. Dicky Barrett had been given some land, believed to be where the Supreme Court stands today, in return for his services as an Interpreter for Colonel Edward Gibbon Wakefield. The first Barrett’s, said to be Wellington’s first proper building, a raupo-thatched grog shop, which later serve as a Post- Office and New Zealand’s first library. The second Barrett’s an imported two storied prefab was erected on this land and there was a grand opening on the 24 October 1840. The Government purchased this building in 1851 and it became the city’s first legislative chamber, as well as the Supreme Court, the Bank of Issue and a registrar’s Office. On the sale of the hotel, the license was transferred to a building on Lambton Quay, off Plimmer’s Lane and that became the third Barrett’s Hotel.

Joseph Wareham was briefly connected with the “Club Hotel”, Strafford in 1901, when he was probably in the process of becoming the licensee. However for some reason it never eventuated. However while the Warehams were managing The Club Hotel, their daughter Ellen married on the 12th February 1901 at the Roman Catholic Church to William Edward Keefe.

In 1902, Joseph became the hotelkeeper of the “Empire Hotel”, Fergusson Street, Feilding. This two-storied hotel [ii], established in 1880, was situated within one minute of the railway station, was. It had 29 rooms of which 17 were bedrooms. It was from this hotel that their two daughters were married, Catherine on the 24 September 1902 and Ann Maria on the 7th October 1903.

In 1904, Joseph Wareham became the hotelkeeper of the “Porirua Hotel”[iii]. The original hotel was known to have existed as early as 1868 was on the stagecoach route.  Porirua was mainly a rural farming area, however in 1887, the Porirua Mental Asylum was established. In 1891, it was further extended with a two storied brick block of 700 beds, which was eventually completed by 1905. The Hotel probable provided accommodation to people visiting the Asylum. The Porirua village had a small station, which was on the Wellington Manawatu line. All the Wareham girls were at this time married and only William Wareham was unmarried, he helped his father with the running of the hotel.

In 1905, Joseph and Bridgit Wareham purchased two properties in Eastbourne, 24 perches being lots 12 and 69 on the deposited plan no 804 in the township of Muritai on the 9th February 1905 for one hundred pounds. The properties were registered only in the name of Bridgit Wareham, a usual practice of the time in case Joseph went bankrupt, they could not be seized property. Bridgit had made a will in favour of her husband Joseph. These properties were purchased for their retirement; in the meanwhile they were thought to have been rented out.

Hotels could be very dangerous in the advent of a fire. Kerosene lamps and candles were the main source of lighting before the advent of electricity and there were no safety measures to prevent the spread of a fire; and in 1908, the Porirua Hotel caught fire. During the fire, William Wareham rescued his cousin, Nelly Brennan and once the fire reached the roof, the entire building became an inferno. In order to retain the licence until a new hotel was built, a bar was quickly established in the stables next to the burnt ruins of the hotel.

After the fire, Joseph and Bridgit Wareham, and their son William moved to the city of Wellington and resided at 198 Tinakori Street, Thorndon, Wellington, around 1909 or 1912.

Then Joseph formed a partnership with his son James and traded as J. Wareham and Son of Wellington, from around 1909 until March 1912; believing to have received a settlement from the insurers for the Porirua Hotel. Joseph and Bridgit on 16th July 1909 mortgaged their two Eastbourne properties for thirty pounds. That plus insurance money formed the capital in the partnership. However in 1912, the partnership had large debts and Joseph decided to file for bankruptcy on 19th March 1912.

After the bankruptcy, Joseph’s problems continued, he was without employment and being 72 years of age it was impossible for him to obtain work. He and Bridgit were entirely dependent on their children for their support and Joseph could not apply for the old age pension, because Joseph was not a British subject. So Joseph and Bridgit resided permanently with Daniel and Grace Wareham. They were living with them around November 1913 to 1914, at 5 Aorangi Street, Thorndon, which still stands today, then when Joseph Wareham US Pension came through, they resided at 175 The Terrace, in Wellington. However from 1915 to 1916, before they were living at 7 Brown Street, which is also still standing, at Wellington.

Joseph, on the advice of his local Member of Parliament, made an application through his solicitors Young & Tripe, in Wellington, on the 3 April 1913, for his U.S. Civil War military pension, which was granted on 23 March 1914; Pension file A&N Division 1409624. Joseph’s pension of US20.00 per month was backdated to the 6th May 1913. The Pension was increased to US$24.00 and increased to US$35.00 on the 10 June 1918. There was also Joseph’s share of the prize money for the capture of the “Cuba” and the destruction of the “CSS Judah” of one thousand pounds.

On 14th May 1913 Joseph applied through his solicitors, Young and Tripe of Wellington for Letters of Naturalisation as a British subject.

A Memorial to his Excellency the Governor of New Zealand, on that single form, Joseph included brief details of his birth, how and when he arrived in New Zealand and a declaration verifying the memorial signed by himself that information supplied was true. There was also a certificate to his character signed by Arthur Young, Solicitor of Wellington.

I Arthur Young of Wellington, Justice of the Peace, the undersigned, do hereby certify that I have known Joseph Wareham the Memoralist named in the foregoing memorial, for a period of 12 years or thereabout, and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, the said Joseph Wareham is a person of good repute. My knowledge of the character and status of the Memorialist is as follows that from time to time I have has business transactions with the said Joseph Wareham and I have also known him personally during the said time.

On the 25th May 1913, Sergeant Lewis of the New Zealand Police, Lambton Quay Police Station, Wellington wrote a report on Joseph Wareham’s character and the Minister of Internal Affairs approved the application on 31 May 1913 and Joseph’s Letters of Naturalisation were sent to him via his solicitors on 24 June 1913.

When Joseph, who was United States citizen by birth, was naturalised in 1913 as a British subject, he lost his United States citizenship under the U.S. Act of March 2, 1907.  All his children, however, who were born prior to 1913, automatically acquired United States citizenship at birth, “as children born outside the United States of a citizen father who had previously resided in the United States”. The children would have had to reside or visit the United States in order not to be expatriated themselves and prevent the acquisition of United States citizenship by the next generation.

Joseph and Bridgit Wareham last resided with Daniel and Grace Wareham at 7 Brown Street, Newtown, Wellington.  Although Bridgit Wareham had made a last Will and Testament, it was never probated and on the 4th November 1915, a Memorandum of transfer was prepared to transfer her Eastbourne properties to her son, Daniel Wareham for one hundred pounds. However the wording “one hundred pounds” was crossed out and replaced with the words “in consideration of my natural love and affection for Daniel Wareham of Wellington, Butcher”. Bridgit Wareham made her mark, which was witnessed by M. M. Beechey, Solicitor of the legal firm, Young and Tripe. 

Bridgit Wareham died of a cerebral haemorrhage on Saturday the 12th August 1916 at 7 Brown Street, Wellington. On the Tuesday, at 8.30am, the funeral cortege left from 7 Brown Street and proceeded to St. Joseph’s Roman Catholic Church, where at 9am, a Requiem mass was conducted by the Rev. Father O’Connor. After the service, Joseph and his family attended a private interment at the Karori Cemetery, Wellington.

When Daniel Wareham became the Hotel Keeper of the Mitre Hotel in Lyttelton, on 26 Feb 1917, Joseph also went to live at the Mitre Hotel, where he remained until his death in 1920. The Wareham’s were associated with the 2nd Mitre Hotel, from1876 to 1926, which was an imposing two storied wooden building fronting both Norwich Quay and Canterbury Street. In Lyttelton Joseph was in his natural element where he was close to the sea and everything maritime. From the proceeds of the back payment of his U.S. pension, he purchased a large motor launch called the “Colleen”, which required a crew to operate it. His son, William, who at that time was the hotelkeeper of the Addington Hotel in Sydenham, Christchurch with his family made regular trips to visit his father, Joseph, his brother Daniel and sister in law Grace at Lyttelton. Evelyn recalled their first trip in her father in law’s launch, Joseph sitting wearing his bowler hat and a stoic expression, smoking his pipe, could not help a slight smile as his son William became more and more sea sick as they proceeded out into the Lyttelton harbour. Around June 1920 Joseph won a handicap race in his motor launch the “Colleen”, which he steered himself. It was probably during the time of the celebrations that followed that his daughter in law Evelyn remembered Joseph, who was aged 80, removing his glass eye, climbing onto the bar of the Mitre Hotel and dancing a sailor’s jig.

Joseph enjoyed a robust good life and remained in good health, but for 10 days prior to his death he came down with bronchitis, which became much worse on a Thursday and on the following Saturday morning, 14 August 1920, Joseph died of a cerebral haemorrhage, certified by Doctor C.H. Upham. His sons Daniel and William Wareham accompanied their father’s coffin to Wellington, New Zealand on the Saturday night Lyttelton ferry steamer, the “Wahine” and a Requiem Mass was held on the 16th August 1920 at St. Mary's of the Angels church on Boulcoutt Street in Wellington, where he was buried next to his wife Bridget, at the Karori Cemetery in Wellington; plot 111 A Roman Catholic section; deed registration number 373W. A memorial plaque was acquired for his grave, from the American Veterans Administration, by the American Civil War Round Table of Queensland, Inc. in 2007.


Cyclopedia of New Zealand, Empire Hotel, Feilding, Volume 1, Wellington.

David Anderson, descendant, Geneva, Switzerland

Deck Logs, USS Colorado

Francis Sutton, Karori Historical Society, NZ

Harper's Weekly, 1862

Joseph Wareham’s Pension File, A&N Division 1409624, National Archives

Karori Cemetery, Wellington, NZ

Michael Wareham, Paremata, Porirua, New Zealand

Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion

Old Buildings of The Porirua District, Porirua Museum

Register General’s Office, Wellington, NZ: Death Certificate of Joseph Wareham

U.S. Naval Historical Center

Wellington City Council


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